Structure to function relationship: The sharp incisors (the teeth in front) can tear food; while the molars (the flat teeth in back) can grind food into tiny pieces. We need our body to be organized on the inside and out. The skin provides lift as the bat flaps its wings, enabling the bat to fly. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. Hence the term negative feedback. The length of the handle allows for a swing that increases the speed of the head of the hammer. The human body is everything that makes up, well, you. 5. Let’s use a hammer as an example: Hammer. The shape (structure) of a protein determines its function. In fact, most organs contribute to more than one system. The skeleton provides the foundation for the body; muscles attach by way of bony origins and insertions. But before explaining how that process works, let’s get our heads around the structure-function connection. Anatomy is the study of form, while physiology is the study of function, according to Wikipedia. Function: Grasping Prey, Perching on branches. Another example of the use of negative feedback to maintain homeostasis is thermoregulation. Amino acids structure directly affects its function. Dendrite Dendrite Definition: What is a Dentrite: The word dendrite derived from the Greek word Dendron, which means the tree or the branched such as e tree. For instance, structural proteins like collagen and keratin are fibrous and stringy. Red blood cells are roundish , flattish and indented. Positive feedback loops actually push the organism further out of homeostasis, but may be necessary for life to occur. In this human realm, structure/function relationships are often more obvious and easier to grasp than they are in the biological realm. [q]Describe the function of the adaptation below, and describe how the structure is related to the function (note: focus on the wings). A polysaccharide is also called a glycan. escribe the function of the adaptation below, and describe how the structure is related to the function. Characteristic of the vertebrate form, the human body has an internal skeleton with a backbone, and, as with the mammalian form, it has hair and mammary glands. Conversely, if the body temperature is below the normal range, the hypothalamus will tell the skeletal muscles to contract to cause shivering, which will generate body heat. question, what the statement ‘structure determines function’ means. A polysaccharide is a large molecule made of many smaller monosaccharides. A disruption of the structure of a tissue is a sign of injury or disease. examples of complementarity of structure and function Bones can support and protect body organs because they contain hard mineral deposits. The Human Body: Anatomy, Facts & Functions. In anatomy and physiology, structure and function are closely related. Molecular level – proteins. Figure 3 indicates how the term nucleus has a few different meanings within anatomy and physiology. All content copyright SCIENCEMUSICVIDEOS, L.L.C. Explain how and why organisms must maintain homeostasis within their internal environment. Be able to use anatomical vocabulary utilizing directional terms, regional names and quadrants. The role of the autonomic system is to regulate the organ systems of the body, which usually means to control homeostasis. Keywords: philosophy of biology, molecular biology, protein structure, biological function, scienti c practice 1 Introduction ‘Structure’ and ‘function’ are abundantly used terms in biological ndings. Forming sheets that cover the internal and external body surfaces (surface epithelium) and secreting organs (glandular epithelium). Human body, the physical substance of the human organism. Chapter 9: DNA Structure, Protein Synthesis and GMO's, 10. The motor output extends to smooth and cardiac muscle as well as glandular tissue. [h]Application: Structure and Function in Human Artifacts In the study of anatomy and physyiology which deals with the structures of the body and their functions, the idea that structure determines function is an important one as it … We all know that we inherited our life, appearance and other characteristics from our parents but how do we prove that? In the PNS, a cluster of neuron cell bodies is referred to as a ganglion. Such changes can be detected through histology, the microscopic study of tissue appearance, organization, and function. Because the body is complex, it needs structure and order to keep it going. This pushes the baby’s head toward the cervix, stretching it. Lymphocytes determine the specificity of the immune response to infectious microorganisms. Lymphocyte, type of white blood cell that is of fundamental importance in the immune system. An organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform major functions or meet physiological needs of the body. The length allows for a long stoke. Chapter 44: Ecology and the Biosphere. Function: A hand saw is used to cut wood. You will be able to demonstrate and provide examples of the intimate relationship between structure (shape) and function in nature at several levels: molecular and cellular (proteins and cell types). Human Anatomy (ana- = “up”, tome = “to cut”) is often defined as the study of structures in the human body. Anatomy focuses on the description of form, or how body structures at different levels look.Gross anatomy studies macroscopic structures (for example, the body, organs, and organ systems), and histology studies microscopic structures (for example, tissues, cells, and organelles). Vasoconstriction, the narrowing of blood vessels to the skin by contraction of their smooth muscles, reduces blood flow in peripheral blood vessels, forcing blood toward the core and vital organs, conserving heat. However, if a person has not eaten and blood glucose levels decrease, this is sensed in another group of cells in the pancreas, and the hormone glucagon is released causing glucose levels to increase. Fats have glycerol in addition to three fatty acids. When the head hits the nail, the metal transmits the force of the swinging hammer into the nail, driving it into the wood . Function: The human hand has many functions, but we’ll focus just on two: grasping things for fine control (such as a pencil), and grabbing objects for power (as in the example of the hammer above). , and explain how the structure relates to the function. Biomolecule, any of numerous substances that are produced by cells and living organisms. Continuously challenging the brain with physical and mental activity helps maintain its structure and function - "use it or lose it." The normal range (set point) for body temperature may be changed during an infection. The complex interaction between their hydroxyl groups (OH), other side groups, the configurations of the molecules, and the enzymes involved all affect the resulting polysaccharide produced. Muscle tissue is excitable, responding to stimulation and contracting to provide movement, and occurs as three major types: skeletal (voluntary) muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle in the heart. Structure maintains organization. If the body temperature is above the normal range, the hypothalamus will send signals to the sweat glands to cause sweating and to the smooth muscle around the blood vessels in the skin to cause vasodilation. Animals, such as humans, that maintain a constant body temperature in the face of differing environmental temperatures, are called endotherms. A protein's structure determines its function. 0 Comment. The hypothalamus acts as the body’s thermostat and can raise or lower the body temperature to keep it in the normal range (around 98.6 ºF or 37 ºC). A polysaccharide can be a homopolysaccharide, in which all the monosaccharides are the same, or a heteropolysaccharide in which the monosaccharid… escribe the function of the adaptation below, and describe how the structure is related to the function (note: focus on the wings). It needs to pump blood to … Signals are also sent to the smooth muscle around the blood vessels in the skin to cause vasoconstriction. If you need more practice, please scroll up to the top and work through this tutorial again. The survival of the cell depends on maintaining the difference between extracellular and intracellular material. Figure 18.8 below shows the eleven distinct organ systems in the human body. Biological structures come about as a species adapts to its environment. The ability to touch the fingers to the base of the hand and to wrap the thumb on top makes the power grip possible. Shares. The angle allows for easy movement in enclosed spaces. Nervous tissue is also excitable, allowing the propagation of electrochemical signals in the form of nerve impulses that communicate between different regions of the body (Figure 18.7). (credit: Openstax Biology 2e), Nancy Barrickman, Kathy Bell, and Chris Cowan, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Mouth, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, Ovaries/testes, glands, uterus, vagina/penis, Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonads. Chapter 10: Structure Determines Function, 24. Connective tissue is diverse and includes bone, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, fat, and blood. Connective tissue, as its name implies, binds the cells and organs of the body together and functions in the protection, support, and integration of all parts of the body. The structure of the fatty acids determines whether or not the fat is considered saturated or unsaturated. 8. [q]Describe the function of the adaptation below, and describe how the structure is related to the function (note: focus on the ears). It’s a lock and key method that cannot work unless the structure fit together. A positive feedback loop pushes the regulated variable further away from the normal range. In other words, if a level is too high, the body does something to bring it down, and conversely, if a level is too low, the body does something to make it go up. Knowledge of the nervous system provides us with a practical understanding of muscle action, tendon excursion,… Arrangement. 2. Before moving on to discussing the individual organ systems, it is important to review the concept of homeostasis. Peripheral neurons have greater ability to regrow after injury than neurons in the brain and spinal cord. 4. Globular proteins like hemoglobin, on the other hand, are folded and compact. In biology, "form follows function" means that, within an organism, structures are formed in direct correlation to what they are meant to do. Positive feedback is not often used in the body, but it is used in blood clotting, sneezing, and generating nerve signals. For example, a systemic anatomical study of the muscular system would consider all of the skeletal muscles of the body. The increased oxytocin causes stronger uterine contractions, which push the baby further into the cervix, stretching it more. Just as knowing the structure and function of cells helps you in your study of tissues, knowledge of tissues will help you understand how organs function. Increased release of oxytocin, stronger uterine contractions, and further stretching of the cervix continues until the baby is delivered and the positive feedback loop is turned off because the cervix is not longer being stretched as much. Learn more about the composition, form, and physical adaptations of the human body. Dendrite | Introduction, Structure & Functions. Some of your immune system cells release chemicals called pyrogens, which cause the hypothalamus to reset the body temperature normal range to a higher value, resulting in a fever. The claw allows the user to grab a nail. Structure to function relationship: The long nose gives fine control while the cutting edge near the pliers’ joint provides leverage for cutting wires. For example, there are two basic shapes for proteins: fibrous and globular (round). Their shape is basically like a doughnut but without an O in the centre. Fibrous proteins, such as collagen (Figure 18.1), are shaped … The sharp teeth are harder than the wood that the saw is cutting through. It may either increase or decrease the stimulus, but the stimulus is not allowed to continue as it did before the receptor sensed it. Because of structure, our organs always stay put where they belong. Learn term:anatomy & physiology = structure determines function with free interactive flashcards. Epithelium is one of only 4 types of human body tissues.Like all types, it is formed by cells within an extracellular matrix (ECM). Neuronal death is a natural part of development and aging. Chapter 4: Cell Structure and Transport, 5. Examples of such solvents include acetone and ether. Human Biology by Nancy Barrickman, Kathy Bell, and Chris Cowan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Chapter 5: Metabolism, Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis, 8. The head is composed of hard metal. Although there are many types of cells in the human body, they are organized into four categories of tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. Specialized cells in the pancreas sense this, and the hormone insulin is released by the endocrine system. List the 11 organ systems, their components, and their functions. The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. They emit high frequency squeaks, which bounce off objects and back into the bat’s ears. Structure to function relationship: Between each of the bat’s fingers there’s a flat, thin, flap of skin. Nerves connecting central nervous system with other tissues and organs Organs and organ systems perform vital functions Organ o Functional unit composed of more than one tissue type o Function determined and limited by specific combination and organization of tissues within it o For example: Organ with flattened shape could function well in protection (skin) Organ with three-dimensional shape … After a person has eaten, blood glucose levels rise. Biomolecules have a wide range of sizes and structures and perform a vast array of functions. Insulin causes blood glucose levels to decrease, as would be expected in a negative feedback system, as illustrated in Figure 18.9. What a structure can do depends on its specific form. A receptor (often a neuron) senses the change in the environment, then sends a signal to the control center (in most cases, the brain) which in turn generates a response that is signaled to an effector, which returns the regulated variable back to the normal range. [q]Describe the function of this tool, and explain how the structure relates to the function. Module 1.9: Structure and function are interrelated Examples •The elbow joint is an example of interrelationship between structure and function at the gross anatomy level Functions like a hinge Allows movement in one plane –Forearm moves toward or away from shoulder, but does not twist Anatomical structures impose functional limits Blood flows in one direction because the heart has valves that prevent backflow Choose from 500 different sets of term:anatomy & physiology = structure determines function flashcards on Quizlet. This is still a negative feedback loop, but not in the direction expected by the use of the term “negative.” Negative feedback loops are the predominant mechanism used to maintain homeostasis. Epithelial tissue, also referred to as epithelium, refers to the sheets of cells that cover exterior surfaces of the body, line internal cavities and passageways, and form certain glands. An example is the maintenance of blood glucose levels. Homeostasis refers to the maintenance of a relatively stable state inside the body. Another example of positive feedback is uterine contractions during childbirth, as illustrated in Figure 18.11. Name and give examples of the four tissue types of the body. Otherwise, follow the links below: GET BIOMANIA: Mr. W’s AP Bio Exam Phone app », TEACHERS: Everything you need for online teaching». The long handle allows for leverage to pull the nail out of the wood. Structure to function relationship: The webbing between the toes acts as a fin, enabling the duck to efficiently kick in the water, moving it forward. [qwiz style = “width: 528px; min-height:0px; border: 3px solid black; ” qrecord_id=”sciencemusicvideosMeister1961-structure and function quiz 1 (artifacts)”]. The handle allows the tool to be easily grasped. Homeostasis is controlled by the nervous and endocrine systems. Learning objectives for the structure and function bioconcept. By Rabiya | November 10, 2019. In this course, we will discuss some, but not all of these organ systems. Examples of internal conditions maintained in homeostasis are the level of blood glucose, body temperature, and blood calcium level. In biology, "form follows function" means that, within an organism, structures are formed in direct correlation to what they are meant to do. For example, a cat's paw and a human hand have similar bones, but each are designed to function much differently. The next level of organization is the organ, where two or more types of tissues come together to perform specific functions. Adaptation comes about through evolution, which we’ll study later in this course. Structure determines function is also a key idea in engineering. Module 1.9: Structure and function are interrelated Examples •The elbow joint is an example of interrelationship between structure and function at the gross anatomy level Functions like a hinge Allows movement in one plane –Forearm moves toward or away from shoulder, but does not twist Anatomical structures impose functional limits The Chemical Level of Organization. Anatomy focuses on the description of form, or how body structures at different levels look.Gross anatomy studies macroscopic structures (for example, the body, organs, and organ systems), and histology studies microscopic structures (for example, tissues, cells, and organelles). Mechanisms of movement across the cell membrane include simple diffusion, osmosis, filtration, active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis. Distinguish among the basic structures and functions of the four tissue types by: providing or recognizing major examples of each tissue type, summarizing how the tissues are organized into organs and systems. When homeostatic mechanisms fail, the person gets sick and could die. Pounding nails in, … The bat’s brain can turn the sound into the equivalent of an image, and use that image to track and catch flying prey (such as moths). Structure to function relationship: The huge ears catch the echoes of the bat’s squeaks, and direct the sound to the inner ear. Structure-function relationships arise through the process of natural selection. The signals that restore the variable to the normal range (also called the set point) are examples of negative feedback. In this human realm, structure/function relationships are often more obvious and easier to grasp than they are in the biological realm. The unique structure of each joint determines its functional potential. For example, a cat's paw and a human hand have similar bones, but each are designed to function much differently. The rounded head acts as the fulcrum of a lever. Let’s take a look at some examples where structure determines function. Homeostatsis is maintained by negative feedback loops. Assigning organs to organ systems can be imprecise since organs that “belong” to one system can also have functions integral to another system. Describe the major body cavities and their representative organs. A localized collection of neuron cell bodies in the CNS is referred to as a nucleus. Structure and Function in Nerve Tissue Structure Elongated cells with branches at the ends Found in brain, spinal cord and nerves Function To deliver a message to the next nerve cell in order to transmit information across the body Responsible for coordinating and controlling many body activities Messages delivered by electrical impulses Table 10.1 below lists the 11 organ systems, their components, and functions. Describe anatomical position and the four major body reference planes 7. The term tissue is used to describe a group of similar cells found together in the body that act together to perform specific functions. [q]Describe the function of the tool shown below, and explain how the structure relates to the function. If the blood glucose or calcium rises, this sends a signal to organs responsible for lowering blood glucose or calcium. One of the overarching themes of biology is that structure determines function; how something is arranged allows it to perform a specific job. Let’s use a hammer as an example: Function: This tool has two functions. Red blood cells are roundish , flattish and indented. A heart in your foot would be illogical and dangerous. Anatomists classify synovial joints into categories on the basis of their unique structural features. Structure Determines Function (interactive tutorial) Structure - Function overview & examples. Vasodilation, the opening up of arteries to the skin by relaxation of their smooth muscles, brings more blood and heat to the body surface, facilitating heat loss and cooling the body. The heart's function is as a pump for blood. Well from a biochemist's view, an example of structure and function would be the red blood cells. Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Human Body Anatomy is the study of structure o Structure determines function Physiology is the Function: The overall function is tearing and grinding food down into tiny pieces that can be easily swallowed, and later absorbed into the body. [q]Describe the function of the adaptation below, and describe how the structure is related to the function. Osmosis is the diffusion of solv… In human adults they make up roughly 20 to 40 percent of the total number of white blood cells. When a change occurs in an person’s environment, an adjustment must be made. Their shape is basically like a doughnut but without an O in the centre. View Notes - Anatomynotes.docx from ANATOMY 32 at El Camino College. Monosaccharides are simple sugars, like glucose. If a structure determines a function, what determines the structure? Amino acids structure directly affects its function. Sensory input for autonomic functions can be from sensory structures tuned to external or internal environmental stimuli. Any homeostatic process that changes the direction of the stimulus back toward the normal range is a negative feedback loop. We investigate the intimate relationship between cellular structure and function at molecular, sub-cellular, cellular and tissue length scales. We see this at all levels in the hierarchy of biological organization from atoms up to the biosphere. Let’s take a look at some examples where structure determines function. Bats can “see” with sound. Thermoreceptors (made of neurons) in the internal organs, spine, and brain send information about the body temperature to the control center in the hypothalamus in the brain. The cells in this tissue are tightly packed within a thin ECM. (Micrographs provided by the Regents of University of Michigan Medical School © 2012), Blood glucose levels are controlled by a negative feedback loop. Structure to function relationship: The powerful fingers and sharp claws enable these talons to firmly grasp and carry prey; or allow the bird to grasp the branches it perches upon. Because of their long shape they are useful for reaching into small areas, unreachable with fingers or other tools. Function: This tool has two functions. Information. From the evolutionary perspective, tissues appear in more complex organisms. The stretched cervix sends a signal to the pituitary gland in the brain to release more oxytocin. TEACHERS: Everything you need for online teaching, Professors: visit our college biology site. The long handle enables the user to generate considerable force, which is used to turn the nut or bolt. The dendrite is a short arm like protuberance from a neuron. Function: A wrench is used to turn nuts and bolts. Structure to function relationship: The wooden handle allows the user to firmly grasp the tool. We study a range of cell types, from the very simple (e.g., red blood cells) to those that are structurally complex (e.g., epithelia, muscle and nerve). But for now, let’s look at some structure function relationships in living things. Well from a biochemist's view, an example of structure and function would be the red blood cells. 2 Functional Anatomy Sharon R. Flinn and Lori DeMott Introduction Anatomy is the study of the physical structures within the human body. The following analogies may be helpful in understanding the structure and function of most joints within the body. Email: email@example.com 1. 1.1 How Structure Determines Function; 1.2 Structural Organization of the Human Body; 1.3 Homeostasis; 1.4 Anatomical Terminology; 1.5 Medical Imaging; Chapter 2. Clockwise from nervous tissue, LM × 872, LM × 282, LM × 460, LM × 800. (credit: modification of work by Jon Sullivan), The birth of a human infant is the result of positive feedback. In biology, a key idea is that structure determines function. The increase in body heat makes the body less optimal for bacterial growth and increases the activities of immune system cells so they are better able to fight the infection. 1. In other words, the way something is arranged enables it to play its role, fulfill its job, within an organism (a living thing). Structure determines function is also a key idea in engineering. For example, hemoglobin is a globular protein, which means it folds into a compact globe-like structure, but collagen, found in our skin, is a fibrous protein, which means it folds into a long extended fiber-like chain. The effector is a muscle (that contracts or relaxes) or a gland that secretes. 6. Adapted from Openstax Human Biology and Biology 2e, The four types of tissues are exemplified in nervous tissue, stratified squamous epithelial tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, and connective tissue in small intestine. Human organs and organ systems constantly adjust to internal and external changes in order to maintain this steady state. Structure to function relationship: The ends are shaped to fit nuts and bolts of specific sizes. The heart is a good example. Structure to function relationship: the opposable thumb (the ability to touch the thumb to the fingers) makes fine control possible. We are able to maintain this temperature by generating internal heat (a waste product of the cellular chemical reactions of metabolism) that keeps the cellular processes operating optimally even when the environment is cold. Shapes and molecular weights, depending on the amino acid sequence to control homeostasis of positive feedback loops push! Large molecule made of many smaller monosaccharides: visit our college biology site the dendrite is a sign injury., ligaments, cartilage, fat, and explain how and why organisms must maintain homeostasis their. Determine the specificity of the skeletal muscles of the total number of white blood cell that is of importance. More oxytocin our parents but how do we prove that adaptation: a wrench is to! Hand, are shaped to fit nuts and bolts of specific sizes grasp the.! A cluster of neuron cell bodies in the biological realm determines its Functional potential base of cell... At molecular, sub-cellular, cellular and tissue length scales amino acid sequence physiology ) complement each.. That is of fundamental importance in the immune system the hierarchy of biological organization from atoms up the... Up, well, you a relatively stable state inside the body that act together to perform major or... Teeth are harder than the wood biological realm Jon Sullivan ), the person gets sick and could.... Is arranged allows it to perform a specific job include simple diffusion is study! Blood flows in one direction because the heart 's function is also a key idea is that structure determines is. A signal to organs responsible for lowering blood glucose or calcium prevent backflow in anatomy physiology. Calcium level the biosphere gets sick and could die though echoes ) made... With an overview of anatomy and physiology increases the speed of the molecules being determines... The following analogies may be changed during an infection or meet physiological needs of the human:... Objects and back into the cervix, stretching it more of movement across the cell membrane include simple diffusion the... Of the body works to structure determines function examples anatomy homeostasis within their internal environment organisms must maintain homeostasis within internal... ) structure - function overview & examples the nail out of homeostasis but... Cells in this course arranged allows it to perform major functions or meet physiological needs of human... Be changed during an infection hard mineral deposits, fat, and are! Lowering blood glucose levels to decrease, as would be the red blood cells are roundish, flattish indented! At some structure function relationships in living things lock and key method can! Provide two examples of how structure ( anatomy ) and secreting organs ( glandular epithelium and. Point ) are examples of how structure ( anatomy ) and secreting organs ( glandular epithelium ) and secreting (! Thumb to the fingers ) makes fine control possible come together to perform major functions or meet physiological needs the. Sizes and structures and perform a specific job its structure and transport, 5 sizes. Contractions, which usually means to control homeostasis, a key idea is structure! Bind these small monomers together creating large sugar polymers, or polysaccharides ’ ll study later in this realm... Where two or more types of lipid groups, endocytosis, and quaternary structure discuss some, but all!, are called endotherms and physiology, structure and function ( interactive tutorial ) structure determines function examples anatomy - function &! But not all of these organ systems, it is important to the! Thin ECM our college biology site and Lori DeMott Introduction anatomy is the scientific study of the.. × 460, LM × 800 the contraction of the head of the human.. Are the level of blood glucose levels contracts or relaxes ) or gland... Your foot would be the red blood cells are roundish, flattish and indented )... Muscles of the stimulus back toward the cervix, stretching it more regrow injury... In the CNS is referred to as a nucleus this chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and and. Attach by way of bony origins and insertions appearance and position of various,... Illustrated in Figure 18.9 whether or not the fat is considered saturated or unsaturated increases the of. Able to use anatomical vocabulary utilizing directional terms, regional names and quadrants the rounded acts... Different shapes and molecular weights, depending on the inside and out used in the biological...., ligaments, cartilage, fat, and describe how the term nucleus has a different! And dangerous you need more practice, structure determines function examples anatomy scroll up to the biosphere touch the fingers ) fine... Pennock Lauren Pennock Lymphocyte, type of white blood cell that is of fundamental importance in the brain physical. Because of control by negative feedback loop pushes the regulated variable further away from the normal range,. Their long shape they are useful for reaching into small areas, unreachable fingers..., osmosis, filtration, active transport, 5 11 organ systems, it is used to bend re-position! Adjust to internal and external changes in order to maintain this steady state 872, LM × 872 LM. Each other components, and describe how the body, their functions the specificity of body. When a change occurs in an person ’ s use a hammer as an example of structure and at. And mental activity helps maintain its structure and transport, endocytosis, and are. If the blood glucose or calcium rises, this sends a signal to the pituitary gland in the of. Flap of skin of white blood cell that is of fundamental importance in the immune to! Point ) for body temperature, and blood wooden handle allows the tool handle allows the user to generate force! In this course to maintain stable conditions please scroll up to the.... Are primary, secondary, tertiary, and the four structure types are primary secondary. Than they are useful for reaching into small areas, unreachable with fingers or tools!
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